SpringBoot中Rest的使用和请求参数注解

xlc5202022年7月2日
  • Java
  • Java
大约 8 分钟约 2293 字

SpringBoot中Rest的使用和请求参数注解

Rest的使用和原理

Rest风格支持(使用HTTP请求方式动词来表示对资源的操作) • 以前:/getUser 获取用户 /deleteUser 删除用户 /editUser 修改用户 /saveUser 保存用户 • 现在: /user GET-获取用户 DELETE-删除用户 PUT-修改用户 POST-保存用户。 看下面的一个例子,这是一个表单:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>hah</title>
</head>
<body>
<form action="/user" method="get">
    <input value="get" type="submit">
</form>
<form action="/user" method="post">
    <input value="post" type="submit">
</form>
<form action="/user" method="post">
    <input value="put" type="submit">
</form>
<form action="/user" method="post">
    <input value="delete" type="submit">
</form>
</body>
</html>

处理上述表单提交的controller。但是我们以put方式和delete方式提交表单时,发现返回的都是GET-张三,不支持put和delete请求。

@RestController
public class UserController {

    @RequestMapping(value = "/user",method = RequestMethod.GET)
    public String getUser(){
        return "GET-张三";
    }

    @RequestMapping(value = "/user",method = RequestMethod.POST)
    public String saveUser(){
        return "POST-张三";
    }


    @RequestMapping(value = "/user",method = RequestMethod.PUT)
    public String putUser(){
        return "PUT-张三";
    }

    @RequestMapping(value = "/user",method = RequestMethod.DELETE)
    public String deleteUser(){
        return "DELETE-张三";
    }
}

WebMvcAutoConfigurationhiddenHttpMethodFilter方法,返回一个filter->OrderedHiddenHttpMethodFilterOrderedHiddenHttpMethodFilter继承自HiddenHttpMethodFilter。@ConditionalOnMissingBean({HiddenHttpMethodFilter.class})需要之前HiddenHttpMethodFilter没有被注入,并且 @ConditionalOnProperty(prefix = "spring.mvc.hiddenmethod.filter", name = {"enabled"})要求spring.mvc.hiddenmethod.filter.enabled=true.

@Bean
    @ConditionalOnMissingBean({HiddenHttpMethodFilter.class})
    @ConditionalOnProperty(
        prefix = "spring.mvc.hiddenmethod.filter",
        name = {"enabled"}
    )
    public OrderedHiddenHttpMethodFilter hiddenHttpMethodFilter() {
        return new OrderedHiddenHttpMethodFilter();
    }
public class OrderedHiddenHttpMethodFilter extends HiddenHttpMethodFilter implements OrderedFilter {

   /**
    * The default order is high to ensure the filter is applied before Spring Security.
    */
   public static final int DEFAULT_ORDER = REQUEST_WRAPPER_FILTER_MAX_ORDER - 10000;

   private int order = DEFAULT_ORDER;

   @Override
   public int getOrder() {
      return this.order;
   }
   public void setOrder(int order) {
      this.order = order;
   }

}

HiddenHttpMethodFilter中有个DEFAULT_METHOD_PARAM字段"_method"。所以我们在提交表单时也要提交一个"_method"参数。并且spring.mvc.hiddenmethod.filter.enabled=true.

public class HiddenHttpMethodFilter extends OncePerRequestFilter {

   private static final List<String> ALLOWED_METHODS =
         Collections.unmodifiableList(Arrays.asList(HttpMethod.PUT.name(),
               HttpMethod.DELETE.name(), HttpMethod.PATCH.name()));

   public static final String DEFAULT_METHOD_PARAM = "_method";

   private String methodParam = DEFAULT_METHOD_PARAM;
   public void setMethodParam(String methodParam) {
      Assert.hasText(methodParam, "'methodParam' must not be empty");
      this.methodParam = methodParam;
   }

   @Override
   protected void doFilterInternal(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, FilterChain filterChain)
         throws ServletException, IOException {
      HttpServletRequest requestToUse = request;
      if ("POST".equals(request.getMethod()) && request.getAttribute(WebUtils.ERROR_EXCEPTION_ATTRIBUTE) == null) {
         String paramValue = request.getParameter(this.methodParam);
         if (StringUtils.hasLength(paramValue)) {
            String method = paramValue.toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH);
            if (ALLOWED_METHODS.contains(method)) {
               requestToUse = new HttpMethodRequestWrapper(request, method);
            }
         }
      }
      filterChain.doFilter(requestToUse, response);
   }

   private static class HttpMethodRequestWrapper extends HttpServletRequestWrapper {

      private final String method;

      public HttpMethodRequestWrapper(HttpServletRequest request, String method) {
         super(request);
         this.method = method;
      }

      @Override
      public String getMethod() {
         return this.method;
      }
   }
}

因此修改表单如下:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>hah</title>
</head>
<body>
<form action="/user" method="get">
    <input value="get" type="submit">
</form>
<form action="/user" method="post">
    <input value="post" type="submit">
</form>
<form action="/user" method="post">
    <input name="_method" type="hidden" value="put">
    <input value="put" type="submit">
</form>
<form action="/user" method="post">
    <input name="_method" type="hidden" value="delete">
    <input value="delete" type="submit">
</form>

</body>
</html>

配置yaml:

spring:
  mvc:
    hiddenmethod:
      filter:
        enabled: true #开启页面表单的Rest功能

修改表单,配置yaml之后,再点击delete 和put就可以发送delete 和put请求了。

Rest原理

表单提交要使用REST的时候:

  • 表单提交会带上**_method=PUT**
  • 请求过来被HiddenHttpMethodFilter拦截
  • 1.如果请求正常,并且是POST(if ("POST".equals(request.getMethod()) && request.getAttribute(WebUtils.ERROR_EXCEPTION_ATTRIBUTE) == null) )则获取**_method**的值
    • 2.获取到**_method的值,如果是ALLOWED_METHODS里的方法(PUT.DELETE.PATCH)则将方法传给包装模式类requesWrapper**,requesWrapper只改变了请求方式。

原生request(post),包装模式requesWrapper重写了getMethod方法,返回的是传入的值。过滤器链放行的时候用wrapper。以后的方法调用getMethod是调用requesWrapper的。

@Override
protected void doFilterInternal(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, FilterChain filterChain)
      throws ServletException, IOException {

   HttpServletRequest requestToUse = request;

   if ("POST".equals(request.getMethod()) && request.getAttribute(WebUtils.ERROR_EXCEPTION_ATTRIBUTE) == null) {
      // paramValue拿到的是_method
       String paramValue = request.getParameter(this.methodParam);
      if (StringUtils.hasLength(paramValue)) {
         String method = paramValue.toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH);
         if (ALLOWED_METHODS.contains(method)) {
            requestToUse = new HttpMethodRequestWrapper(request, method);
         }
      }
   }

   filterChain.doFilter(requestToUse, response);
}
private static final List<String> ALLOWED_METHODS =
      Collections.unmodifiableList(Arrays.asList(HttpMethod.PUT.name(),
            HttpMethod.DELETE.name(), HttpMethod.PATCH.name()));

requesWrapper:

private static class HttpMethodRequestWrapper extends HttpServletRequestWrapper {

		private final String method;

		public HttpMethodRequestWrapper(HttpServletRequest request, String method) {
			super(request);
			this.method = method;
		}

		@Override
		public String getMethod() {
			return this.method;
		}
	}

将_method改成其他名字

将**_method改成了_m**,此时因为程序中无法获取**_m**,所以我们表单中点击delete依然是post,因此我们需要再更改表单即可。

//自定义filter
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.web.filter.HiddenHttpMethodFilter;

@Configuration(proxyBeanMethods = false)
public class RestConfig {

    @Bean
    public HiddenHttpMethodFilter hiddenHttpMethodFilter(){
        HiddenHttpMethodFilter methodFilter = new HiddenHttpMethodFilter();
        methodFilter.setMethodParam("_m");
        return methodFilter;
    }
}

修改form表单,添加_m:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>hah</title>
</head>
<body>
<form action="/user" method="get">
    <input value="get" type="submit">
</form>
<form action="/user" method="post">
    <input value="post" type="submit">
</form>
<form action="/user" method="post">
    <input name="_method" type="hidden" value="put">
    <input name="_m" type="hidden" value="put">
    <input value="put" type="submit">
</form>
<form action="/user" method="post">
    <input name="_method" type="hidden" value="delete">
    <input name="_m" type="hidden" value="delete">
    <input value="delete" type="submit">
</form>

</body>
</html>

Rest使用客户端工具

  • **如PostMan直接发送Put、delete等方式请求,无需Filter。**表单只能用get,post请求。

请求处理----参数注解

@PathVariable、@RequestHeader、@ModelAttribute、@RequestParam、@MatrixVariable、@CookieValue、@RequestBody

参数注解作用

@PathVariable

作用:@PathVariable是spring3.0的一个新功能:接收请求路径中占位符的值,将URL中占位符参数{xxx}绑定到处理器类的方法形参中@PathVariable(“xxx“),上如果有多个占位符,形参列表需要定义多个参数,不是很方便,可以直接定义一个map集合@PathVariable Map<String,String> kv,会自动映射多个参数;

@RequestParam

@RequestParam主要用于将请求参数区域的数据映射到控制层方法的参数上

@RequestParam(value=”参数名”,required=true/false,defaultValue=””)
  • value:请求中传入参数的名称,即前端传过来时定义的参数名。如果不设置value值,则前端定义的参数名必须和后端接口参数名相同
  • required:该参数是否为必传项。默认是true,表示请求中一定要传入对应的参数,否则会报404错误;如果设置为false,当请求中没有此参数,将会默认为null。而对于基本数据类型的变量,则必须有值,这时会抛出空指针异常。如果允许空值,则接口中变量需要使用包装类来声明。
  • defaultValue:参数的默认值,如果请求中没有同名的参数时,该变量默认为此值。
@RequestBody

作用:@RequestBody主要用来接收前端传递给后端的json字符串中的数据的(请求体中的数据的)

  • GET方式无请求体,所以使用@RequestBody接收数据时,前端不能使用GET方式提交数据,而是用POST方式进行提交
  • 在后端的同一个接收方法里,@RequestBody与@RequestParam()可以同时使用,@RequestBody最多只能有一个,而@RequestParam()可以有多个
  • 如果参数时放在请求体application/json传入后台的话,那么后台要用@RequestBody才能接收到
  • 如果不是放在请求体中的话,那么后台接收前台传过来的参数时,要用@RequestParam来接收,或者形参前 什么也不写也能接收
@CookieValue

同请求头类似,可以获取cookie属性,也可以将获取到的属性封装为cookie对象

@RequestAttribute

获取请求域中的信息

@Controller
public class GoController {
    @GetMapping("/goto")
    public String goPage(HttpServletRequest request){
        request.setAttribute("msg","成功");
        request.setAttribute("code","200");
        return "forward:/success";
    }
    @ResponseBody
    @GetMapping("/success")
    public Map<String,Object> getmap(@RequestAttribute("msg") String msg,
                                     @RequestAttribute("code") String code){
        HashMap<String, Object> map = new HashMap<>();
        map.put("msg",msg);
        map.put("code",code);
        return map;
    }
}
@MatrixVariable

读取矩阵变量,矩阵变量语法如下,每一个变量之间用分号隔开

语法: 请求路径:/cars/sell;low=34;brand=byd,audi,yd

//cars/sell;low=34;brand=byd,audi,yd
@GetMapping("/car/{path}")
public Map test2(@MatrixVariable("low") String low,
                 @MatrixVariable("brand") List<String> brand,
                 @PathVariable("path") String path){
    HashMap<String, Object> map = new HashMap<>();
    map.put("low",low);
    map.put("brand",brand);
    map.put("path",path);
    return map;
}
//{"path":"sell","low":34,"brand":["byd","audi","yd"]}

示例:

请求地址如果为:http://localhost:9999/car/2/owner/zhangsan?age=18&inters=basketball&inters=footballopen in new window

@PathVariable("id") Integer id: 获取路径中{id}
@PathVariable("username") String name: 获取路径中{username}
@PathVariable Map<String, String> pv: 获取路径中所有的路径变量
@RequestHeader("User-Agent") String userAgent: 获取请求头中userAgent
@RequestHeader Map<String, String> header: 获取请求头中所有参数
@RequestParam("age") Integer age: 获取请求参数中"age"
@RequestParam("inters") List<String> inters: 获取请求参数中"inters"
@RequestParam Map<String, String> params: 获取所有的请求参数
@CookieValue("_ga") String _ga: 获取cookie中_ga的值
@CookieValue("_ga") Cookie cookie) : 获取cookie
import javax.servlet.http.Cookie;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;

@RestController
public class ParameterTestController {


    //  http://localhost:9999/car/2/owner/zhangsan?age=18&inters=basketball&inters=football
    @GetMapping("/car/{id}/owner/{username}")
    public Map<String, Object> getCar(@PathVariable("id") Integer id,
                                      @PathVariable("username") String name,
                                      @PathVariable Map<String, String> pv,
                                      @RequestHeader("User-Agent") String userAgent,
                                      @RequestHeader Map<String, String> header,
                                      @RequestParam("age") Integer age,
                                      @RequestParam("inters") List<String> inters,
                                      @RequestParam Map<String, String> params,
                                      @CookieValue("_ga") String _ga,
                                      @CookieValue("_ga") Cookie cookie) {


        Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<>();

        map.put("id", id);
        map.put("name", name);
        map.put("pv", pv);
        map.put("userAgent", userAgent);
        map.put("headers", header);
        map.put("age", age);
        map.put("inters", inters);
        map.put("params", params);
        map.put("_ga", _ga);
        System.out.println(cookie.getName() + "===>" + cookie.getValue());
        return map;
    }


    @PostMapping("/save")
    public Map postMethod(@RequestBody String content) {
        Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<>();
        map.put("content", content);
        return map;
    }


    //1、语法: 请求路径:/cars/sell;low=34;brand=byd,audi,yd
    //2、SpringBoot默认是禁用了矩阵变量的功能
    //      手动开启:原理。对于路径的处理。UrlPathHelper进行解析。
    //              removeSemicolonContent(移除分号内容)支持矩阵变量的
    //3、矩阵变量必须有url路径变量才能被解析
    @GetMapping("/cars/{path}")
    public Map carsSell(@MatrixVariable("low") Integer low,
                        @MatrixVariable("brand") List<String> brand,
                        @PathVariable("path") String path) {
        Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<>();

        map.put("low", low);
        map.put("brand", brand);
        map.put("path", path);
        return map;
    }

    // /boss/1;age=20/2;age=10

    @GetMapping("/boss/{bossId}/{empId}")
    public Map boss(@MatrixVariable(value = "age", pathVar = "bossId") Integer bossAge,
                    @MatrixVariable(value = "age", pathVar = "empId") Integer empAge) {
        Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<>();

        map.put("bossAge", bossAge);
        map.put("empAge", empAge);
        return map;

    }

}